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Direct Research Journals
Vol.5 (1), pp. 26-34, January 2017
ISSN 2354-4147: International Standard Journal Number (ISJN) e-ISJN: A4372-2604

Analysis of profitability of mixed farming in rubber-based agroforestry systems in Nigeria
Article Number: DRJA112590487

Original Research Article

*1Anegbeh, P. O., 1Esekhade, T. U., 1Abolagba, E. O., 1Ogwuche, P. 1,3Afolabi, K. D. and  2Balogun F. E.

1Research Outreach Department, Farming Systems Research, Extension and Socioeconomic Divisions, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN), P. M. B. 1049, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

2Animal Sciences Department, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author E-mail:

date Received: November 1, 2016     date Accepted: November 24, 2016     date Published: December 14, 2016


This paper examines the profitability of rubber based agroforestry systems of intercropping high-value food crops (Soybean, Maize, Melon and Cassava with rubber) and integrating mini-livestock (bees and rabbits) with rubber in smallholder model farms in Nigeria. Results of the trials carried out by Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) for three years are presented. Gross returns were generally higher in rubber inter-cropped with two or more crops. The highest gross return was N337, 180.00 for rubber + soybean + melon in 1998 and N133, 400.00 for rubber + soybean + cassava in 1999. Rubber + soybean and Rubber + maize had the highest variable costs (N48, 914.00 and N48, 839.00) in 1998; while in 1999 it was N18, 475.00 for rubber + soybean + melon. Bee keeping under rubber was found to be technically, socially and economically feasible producing about 125 litres of honey per year, and providing a net income of N615, 595.72 per annum. Rabbits rearing under rubber were attractive and practical, producing and yielding N963, 680.00 per year. The rabbits serve as food and a control mechanism for weeds as the weeds like Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria phaseoloides are collected as feeds for the rabbits. The integration of mini-livestock with rubber has been found to be ecologically compatible and economically viable and is, therefore, recommended to smallholder farmers in Nigeria.

Key words: Agroforestry, bee-keeping, diversification, income, intercropping, mini-livestock, rabbitary, rubber, profitability, smallholders