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Direct Research Journals
Direct Research Journal of Health and Pharmacology:Vol.6 (2), pp. 12-18, May 2018
ISSN 2449-0814

Comparative Studies of the Phytochemical and Nutritional Analysis of Water Hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes] Stem and Leaf
Article Number: DRJA270945893

Original Research Article

Gabriel A. F., Igwemmar N. C, *Sadam A. A., and Babalola S. A.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author E-mail:

date Received: April 20, 2018     date Accepted: May 16, 2018     date Published: May 29, 2018


The use of Herbal plant formulations and culinary as an excellent source of several nutrients and ethno-medicine has been the major subject of study in human history. This conventional usage prompted the researchers to formulate these herbal drugs in the treatment of diseases. This study is predominantly on the comparative, characterization and nutritional assay of the stem and leaf of water hyacinth extracts through phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate analysis to elucidate the potential applications. From the results, the ethanol extract of the leaves (EL) revealed the presence of phenol, steroids and saponin owing to the affinity of the solvent for hydrophilicity, while the hexane extract of the leaves (HL) shows the presence of flavonoids and steroids. Also the ethanolic extract of the stems (ES) shows the presence of phenol, steroids and saponin for the same reason, while the hexane extract of stems (HS) shows the presence of flavonoids and steroids. The proximate analysis of the leaf reveals appreciable percentages of protein, fibre and moisture content while that of stem shows higher percentages for carbohydrates and crude lipids. The leaf and stem show equal percentages for the ash content. The Elemental analysis shows that heavy metal concentrations of the leaf and stem are within threshold limits. This evident research substantiates the potential application of water hyacinth for consumption. The presence of secondary metabolites for pharmacological and therapeutic utilization such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidandruff, antiproliferative activities and provides a potential source of animal feed due to the higher percentage of carbohydrates, crude protein and crude fibre.

Keywords: Stem and leaf, phytochemical, nutritional analysis, water hyacinth