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Direct Research Journals
Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science:Vol.6 (8), pp. 182-196, August 2018
ISSN 2354-4147

Quality Evaluation of Nigerian Indigenous Based Food (Upursah: i.e. “Tiger nut composites flour”) from Tiger Nut, Sorghum, Sweet Potato and Soybean
Article Number: DRJA3526097845

Original Research Article

Charles Bristone*, Chukwudi John Okafor,  Mamudu Halidu Badau and Afodia Litini Kassum

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, P. M. B.1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

date Received: June 20, 2018     date Accepted: July 21, 2018     date Published: July 31, 2018


Tiger nut, sorghum grain, sweet potato and soybean were processed into flours and were formulated into six indigenous foods (Upursah). Evaluation of their quality parameters was considered as the objective. Particle size distribution, functional properties, proximate composition, mineral elements, microbiological plate counts, and sensory properties of these blends were evaluated. Their particle size distribution generally varies. Other results are: bulk density (0.52 to 0.61 g/cm3), water absorption capacity (1.33 to 3.00 cm3/g), percentage dispersibility (63.50 to 75.00), moisture (3.23 to 7.81 g), ash (2.02 to 3.69 g), protein (3.85 to 13.61 g), fat (9.16 to 20.12 g), carbohydrate (57.98 to 80.06 g), Potassium (2.30 to 4.30 mg/100 g), iron (1.31 to 2.66 mg/100 g), zinc (0.01 to 0.27 mg/100 g), magnesium (0.20 to 3.20 mg/100 g), sodium (65.32 to 94.76 mg/100 g ), total plate count (1.1 x 102 to 2.0 x 102 CFU/ml), presumptive coliform count (4 x 102 to 1.2 x 102 CFU/ml) and yeast-mould counts (2.3 x 102 to 2.7 x 102 CFU/ml). But four of the Upursah formulations (A, B, D, E ) had no growth of yeasts-moulds. Microbial counts did not exceed recommended limits. All results for sensory attributes except one lie above the Hedonic scale of like slightly. Therefore, Upursah can be produced on large scale and incorporated into global diets.

Keywords: Formulations, blends, Upursah, sensory, particle, flour, tiger nut, indigenous food