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Antibacterial activity of Vernonia amygdalina aqueous leaf extracts on bacteria associated with fresh beef meat sold in different areas of Sokoto metropolis
Article Number: DRJA26178391
Original Research Article
1Usman A. A., *2Bello A., 4Salihu, A. A., 3Ezeamagu C. E., 5Odeh, A. P., andÂ 6Zainab, A. B.
1Department of Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
3Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education Technical, Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.
4Department of Agricultural technology, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic, Sokoto State.
Â 5Department of Microbiology, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.
6Microbiology Department, Specialist Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: November 10, 2017 Accepted: December 2, 2017 Published: December 12, 2017
This study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of Vernonia amygdalina extracts at concentrations of 30 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml and 90 mg/ml respectively. The bacteria were isolated from meat samples obtained from five (5) designated areas in Sokoto State. The bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp and Bacillus subtilis. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial activity of the extract at diffusion concentration on the bacteria and the following results were obtained: At 30 mg/ml, Escherichia coli (9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (7 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9mm), were susceptible but Bacillus subtilis, Shigella spp and Salmonella typhi were resistant. At 60 mg/ml, Escherichia coli (12 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (10mm) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11 mm) were susceptible but Bacillus subtilis, Shigella spp and Salmonella typhi were still resistant. However, at 90 mg/ml, activity was only seen in Salmonella typhi (6 mm) among the resistant bacteria, while the rest were still susceptible. However, the activity of the extract increases as the concentration increases. This might be due to the presence of secondary metabolite like Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Steroids and saponin glycosides.
Key word: Antibacterial, Vernonia amygdalina, beef meat, Sokoto, metropolis