Article Number: DRJEIT16716303
ISSN: 2354-4155

Vol. 9 (7), Pp. 285-292, August 2022

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Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

Original Research Article

Assessment of Compressive Strength of Concrete using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and X-Ray Fluoroscopy in Selected Construction Projects Within Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda Zamfara State

Nasiru Shehu*

Abdurrahman Umar Nakazalle


One of the most serious difficulties experienced in building construction is the use of poor construction materials, which causes structural collapse in the Nigerian construction sector, resulting in the loss of life and property. This is an assessment of concrete production in selected construction projects at federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda using atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluoroscopy technologies. Because of differences in compaction, curing, and workmanship, tests done on standard hardened concrete specimens from new concrete frequently mislead the genuine grade of concrete actually utilized in the project. Modern compliance testing methods include atomic absorption spectrometry and X-Ray fluoroscopy. It was accomplished by laboratory experimentation and careful examination of contract documents, with a focus on mix design/specification. The information acquired from the document was then used to create concrete samples (control sample). Renal samples of actual concrete used were collected at random, cured, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluoroscopy after 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 56, and 90 curing days, respectively. The identical samples were compressed strength tested to destruction. Elemental analysis using the AAS method traced eleven elements. Samples were generated from the concrete specimen and submitted to elemental analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, AAS, and X-Ray Fluoroscopy, XRF. These are: Fe, Ca, mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, K, Na, Cd, and Cr. While XRF method determined eight elements. These are: Ai, Si, Ca, K, Na, Ti, Fe and Mn. According to the study’s findings, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, and Cd have a positive association. The correlations are as follows: 0.281, 0.023, 0.485, 0.434, and 0.023.  As a result, they all have a direct relationship. However, the correlations are not significant because all of the factors are much below 1.0. This demonstrates that these elements cannot directly give an idea of compressive strength; additionally, the study demonstrates that non-adherence to the correct steps of concrete production, such as the use of the incorrect water/cement ratio and the use of a crude method of batching, were identified as common problems in concrete production.  Checklist was prepared on the right method of concrete production and used to assess how concretes were produced. It was also found that the average compressive strength of concrete produced on two construction projects as 10.47 N/mm2and 6.96 N/mm2 did not attain the minimum strength required at 28 days which is  21 N/mm2 by the BS 1881, (1983b) part 116, while the concrete produced on another sites has a strength of 20.01N/mm2 at 28 days which is close to the specification of BS 1881 and the controlled sample average strength of concrete at 28 days was 23.79N/mm2 which is within the range specified by the BS 1881 part 116 (1983b).Based on the results obtained, the compressive strength of concrete collected from sites was less than the control specimen by 14% hence it was recommended that 14% should be added to the estimated design strength as a factor of safety to take care of the problems of the handling of the concrete materials and other construction inaccuracies. Government and professional bodies should make concerted effort in enforcing National Building Code.

Keywords: Concrete, atomic absorption spectrometry, X-ray fluoroscopy, production, quality


 Received: July 9, 2022  Accepted: July 30, 2022  Published: August 11, 2022

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