Article Number: DRJEIT19944235
ISSN: 2354-4155

Vol. 9 (6), Pp. 268-284, July 2022

Copyright © 2022

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Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology

Original Research Article

Process Optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the Production of Modified Local Soap using Plantain Peel as a Source of Alkali

Omoruwou, F.

Olayebi, O.*


The importance of locally produced goods to the growth of a national economy cannot be overemphasized; hence, procuring raw materials locally in industrial production is the roadmap to economic progress and development. The purpose of this study was to optimize the process parameters in high-quality local soap production using plantain peel ash as a source of alkali. Palm kernel oil (PKO) was used to make the soap, which had the following physicochemical parameters: saponification value (SV)275 mgKOH/g, acid value 7.02mgKOH/g, free fatty acid 3.51mgKOH/g, iodine value 17.68 I2/100g, peroxide value 7.784 mEq/kg, and specific gravity of 0.8818. The alkali extract from the plantain peel ash was used with the oil for soap production. A modified conventional method was adopted for better soap quality, using a response surface modelling (RSM) tool to obtain optimal production process conditions. The effect of the process variables was also analyzed. The soap produced was also analyzed by testing for foam stability, foamability, total fatty matter, moisture content and hardness of soap. The highest projected percentage soap yield of 84.17 percent was reached during a reaction time of 39.36 minutes with an ash of 17.96 g and a temperature of 55.220C. The model had a very high R2 value of 0.9786, indicating that it can account for around 98 percent of the variability in the percentage soap yield. The expected R2 of 0.9394 agrees reasonably with the corrected R2 of 0.9594. It shows that employing a quadratic polynomial as a response surface methodology was effective in modeling the saponification process.

Keywords: Process parameters, plantain peel, palm kernel oil, soap production, saponification

 Received: June 9, 2022  Accepted: July 20, 2022  Published: July 30, 2022

Copyright © 2022 Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology