Article Number: DRJHP3041925792
Vol.8 (6), pp. 94-101, October 2020
Copyright © 2020
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
Original Research Article
Anti-diarrhoeal Effects of Acacia nilotica Leaf Extract on Castor Oil Induced Diarrhoea in Wistar Strain Albino Rats
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extract of Acacia nilotica on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats. Antibacterial studies were carried out on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. All treatments were administered orally for effect on intestinal motility, gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal, fluid accumulation, and electrolyte secretion. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, and phenols. Quantitative estimation of the phytochemicals showed that the methanolic extract contained a higher amount of the phytochemicals with 38.46±0.41 phenolics content compared to 29.46±1.12 as the phenolics content for the aqueous extract. The methanolic extract exhibited a higher zone of inhibition of 14.34±1.54 for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus against 11.23±0.67 exhibited by the aqueous extract for the same organism. It was observed that 400mg/kg methanolic extract significantly (p<0.05) inhibited intestinal motility by 45%, fluid accumulation was reduced by 56% while animals treated with 400mg/kg of aqueous extract intestinal motility was inhibited by 35%, and fluid accumulation reduced by 47%. It was observed that the inhibitions of intestinal motility, number of wet faeces, volume, and weight of intestinal content as well as electrolytes secretion were dose-dependent. The higher the dosage, the higher the percentage of inhibition. The phytochemicals detected in these extracts may be responsible for observed effects and can attest to its uses as an anti-diarrhoeal agent in traditional medicine.
Keywords: Acacia nilotica, castor oil, intestinal motility, aqueous and methanolic extract, anti-diarrhoeal agent