Article Number: DRJHP101763090732

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26765/DRJHP101763090732

ISSN: 2449-0814

Vol.8 (5), pp. 52-64, August 2020

Copyright © 2020

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article


Original Research Article

Effect of Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus amarus and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (Tenofovir-Lamivudine Combination) in Wistar Rats

*Bello, M. I.

Ibaba, H. E.


Abstract

The effect of the ethanolic crude leaf extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on the deleterious effects of the prolonged administration of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) (Tenofovir-Lamivudine) in Wistar rats was investigated. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the crude leaf extract and fractions showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenols. Quantitatively, alkaloids (3.73±0.10, 1.70±0.10 for crude extract and fraction I respectively); tannins (9.08±0.07, 4.17±0.07 for crude extract and fraction I respectively); phenols (7.41±0.07, 2.09±0.07 and 4.96±0.44 for crude extract, fraction I and fraction II respectively); flavonoids (11.87±0.56, 4.58±0.24 and 3.17±0.07 for crude extract, fraction I and fraction II respectively); saponins (5.99±0.19, 2.02±0.20 and 3.01±0.14 for crude extract, fraction I and fraction II respectively) and terpenoids (1.27±0.10 for crude extract only) were estimated. Invitro antioxidants status of the crude leaf extract and fractions was determined using DPPH, FRAP and TBARS with the ethanolic crude leaf extract showing more of the antioxidant potentials than its fractions. The administration ethanolic crude leaf extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus and HAART which lasted for 21 days showed that animals that received 300mg/kg body weight of HAART showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of AST, ALT, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine levels. However, co-treatment of these animals with ethanolic crude leaf extract, fraction 1 and fraction 2 (100, 200mg/kg body weight respectively) of Phyllanthus amarus revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of AST, ALT, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels with a corresponding significant increase (P<0.05) in total protein and albumin levels. The results from this research showed that the ethanolic crude leaf extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus has expressed its ameliorative potential by reversing the deleterious effects of prolonged HAART administration on the experimental animals.


Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, ameliorative, ethanolic crude leaf extract and fractions, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), antioxidant


 Received: July 30, 2020  Accepted: August 15, 2020  Published: August 31, 2020

Bello And Ibaba


Copyright © 2020 Direct Research Journal of Health and Pharmacology