Article Number: DRJHP76266049
ISSN: 2449-0814

Vol.9, Pp. 36-43, 2021

Copyright © 2021

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article

Original Research Article

Human health risk assessment on the consumption of Musa acuminata treated with different ripening agents

Nwankwo Joy Uchechi*

Osuji Chigoziri Akudo

Ubani Chibuike Samuel


The use of indiscriminate ripening agents (e.g., Calcium Carbide) to improve fruit ripening exposes fruits to heavy metal contamination, which can have long-term health consequences for consumers. The purpose of this study was to determine the heavy metals levels of albino rats fed Musa acuminata treated with different ripening agents and also to ascertain through probabilistic models and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards, the extent of health risk and carcinogenicity to the consumers. Twenty-five (25) female albino rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were divided into five groups. Group 1 (Normal feed and water), Group 2 (feed + 20g of naturally ripened banana), Group 3 (Feed + 20g of banana ripened with African bush mango), Group 4 (Feed + 20g of banana ripened with 7g calcium carbide), Group 5 (Feed + 20g of banana ripened with 30g calcium carbide). The levels of Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), and Chromium (Cr) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result showed an increase in the levels of Pb and As for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. Groups 4 and 5 for Cr were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Results from the human health risk assessment model for Estimated Daily Intake showed an increase above the tolerable daily intake for heavy metals such as Pb (for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) and As (for group 5). There was also a fall in the Tolerable daily intake (TDI) for Cr (all groups were below the TDI) and As (for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4). Toxic Hazard Quotient (THQ) showed increased values above the standard THQ (0<x<1) for an acceptable human such as Pb (for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) and As (for group 5), whereas values for Cr and As (for group 1, 2, 3 and 4) were below the standard THQ. Carcinogenic Risk (CR) values showed that all values estimated were within the value of USEPA incremental lifetime carcinogenic risk (ILCR > 10-3) while As for group 5 was otherwise. The observed results showed that calcium carbide contains traces of potential toxic elements (heavy metals) and that its use in fruit ripening will pose a potential health risk on the consumers.

Keywords: Risk assessment, heavy metals, carcinogenic risk, calcium carbide, fruit ripening


 Received: August 6, 2021  Accepted: August 23, 2021  Published: August 27, 2021

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