Article Number: DRJHP78098127

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26765/DRJHP78098127

ISSN: 2449-0814

Vol.8 (1), pp. 7-13, February 2020

Copyright © 2020

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article


Original Research Article

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic leaves and stem bark extract of Jatropha tanjorensis

Elinge, C. M.

Yanah, Y. M.

Habiba, A.

Obaro, I. O.

Ogunleye, A. O.

Yusuf, H.

Elinge, R. I.


Abstract

The leaves and stem bark of Jatropha tanjorensis was extracted using ethanol and water for phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities using standard method. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some bioactive components that possessed antimicrobial properties. Various chemical tests showed the presence of glycosides, flavonoid saponins, alkaloid, steroids, terpenoid and tannins while reducing sugar and anthraquinones were absent when tested. The effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract on some pathogenic bacteria strain showed such as staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, shigella, salmonella typhi, and streptococcus showed that the plant can be used to treat infections caused by bacteria. The ethanolic extract was more effective covering nearly the entire spectrum of the organism with the zone of inhibition ranging from 7.00 mm, 5.40 mm, 5.40 mm, 5.10 mm, 4.15 mm, and 3.99 mm against salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, shigella spp, and streptococcus spp. The aqueous and ethanolic extract showed antibacterial activity but the significant antimicrobial activity was showed by ethanolic extract only against S/typhi and S/aureus while moderate activity against E. coli strep spp. and shigella. The MICs of the ethanolic extract against the test bacteria were high and correlates with the sensitivity test result while the effectiveness of the crude extract confirmed its use in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disease and also to build up blood levels in physiological condition like pregnancy and menstruation when there is drop in hemoglobin and package cell volume.


Keywords: Antimicrobial, ethanolic, phytochemical, screening


 Received: January 2, 2020  Accepted: January 20, 2020  Published: February 28, 2020

Elinge Et Al


Copyright © 2020 Direct Research Journal of Health and Pharmacology