Article Number: DRJPHET86135240957


ISSN: 2734-2182

Vol. 6, pp. 52-61, 2021

Copyright © 2021

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article

Original Research Article

Effect of partial replacement of sand with African Elemi (canarium schweinfurthii) in concrete

Muhammad, Umar Ishaq

*Audu Usman Ibrahim

Misbahu Kabiru Kaura


The safe disposal of waste materials generated on a daily basis by agricultural, industrial, and other similar activities is becoming a major concern in developing countries, including Nigeria. This is a major concern, particularly in terms of health and environmental management.  African Elemi seed is one of these materials that are generated and dumped as waste in our environment on a daily basis after utilizing the pulp, and they are not easily decomposed there, making the environment look untidy, especially in areas where this fruit is abundantly available due to a lack of proper waste management techniques.  As a result, the importance of proper waste disposal cannot be overstated. As a result, using African elemi as a partial replacement of sand in concrete eliminates waste. This study looked at the physical and oxide composition of African Elemi seed, as well as how it affects the strength development, density, flexural strength, compressive strength, and water absorption of concrete when used in part to replace sand at1,2,3,4,7,14,21,28 and 56days curing at 0%,5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,25%,30%,35% and 40%using 1:1.5:3 mix design at 0.55 w/c ratio. A total of 216 cube specimens of 100mm x 100mm x 100mm were prepared and cured of which crushing test was carried out appropriately. Also,24 beam specimens of 100mm x 100mm x 500mm were prepared and a flexural strength test was carried out after 28 days of curing. The results of this study show that African Eleme seed has a significant effect on the compressive strength, tensile strength, density, and water absorption of concrete. For example, a reduction in density, compressive and flexural strengths were recorded for each increase in A. E. % in the concrete. Optimum compressive and flexural strengths were recorded at 10% replacement of sand with A. E. in the concrete at 56 days the age of curing and were found to be 21.3N/mm2 and 2.63N/mm2. These results show that A. E. can be used in non-structural concrete because it met the M15 design strength. Finally, at 10% and 40% replacement levels, the highest and lowest slump values were 40mm and 14mm, respectively, indicating that the workability of concrete decreases as the A. E. percentage in the concrete increases.

Keywords: African Elemi, concrete, compressive and flexural strengths, optimum mix

 Received: May 16, 2021  Accepted: June 25, 2021  Published: June 30, 2021

Muhammad Et Al

Copyright © 2021 Direct Research Journal of Public Health and Environmental Technology