Article Number: DRJPHET10060699


ISSN: 2734-2182

Vol. 5 (3), pp. 37-40, May 2020

Copyright © 2020

Author(s) retain the copyright of this article

Original Research Article

Filtration and backwashing studies using crushed palm kernel shells

J. O. Jeje*

O. R. Alo

M. S. W. Mbajiorgu


This study is a continuation of the efforts to establish crushed palm kernel shells alongside other locally available materials as a filter media to replace the use of imported sand as the filter medium for filtration. A constant head pilot filter (40 × 20 × 220 cm) was constructed with perforated pipe underdrains and pots for the monitoring of both turbidity and headloss values with depth and time. A 20 cm gravel bed was overlaid with a 55 cm bed of crushed shells made up of sizes 0.45 – 0.71 mm (65% by volume) and 0.71 – 0.85 mm (35% by volume). Two runs were carried out, each run having 5 sub runs, 1A to 1B and 2A to 2B. The filter was rested after each sub run and backwashed after Run 1B. A solution of Chlorine was added during the period of rest that followed runs 2C and 2D to verify if biological activities went on during the period of rest. It was found that the filter produced clean and odour free effluent of acceptable turbidity (0.5 NTU average), could operate up to 6 gpm/ft2 but was limited to 2.8 gpm/ft2 and developed headloss slowly. At the 40 h of filtration, the headloss was 43 cm of water which indicates that the length of filter run could exceed the 72 h upper limit in conventional rapid sand filters. Backwashing with 1.2% of filtered water at 15.8 gpm/ft2 for 4.5 minutes produced a clean filter. The addition of Chlorine destroyed the gain of headloss that resting brought but created additional headloss which went down as filtration occurred.

Keywords: Filtration, backwashing, palm kernel shells, headloss, turbidity and coagulant

 Received: April 3, 2020  Accepted: May 5, 2020  Published: May 30, 2020

Jeje Et Al 1

Copyright © 2020 Direct Research Journal of Public Health and Environmental Technology